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It is surprising in view of the interest of the subject and the wealth of illustrative material; but it is not surprising when it is remembered that, before the year 1892, few guessed and fewer knew that there were any public or grammar schools - two terms for the same thing - in England at all, except Winchester and Eton, before the reputed creation of schools by that boy king. In fact, the Greek rhetorician was the intellectual father of the Oxford schoolman. speeches on the model of a minister introducing a bill or moving to repeal an act; and trying fictitious cases, preparatory for the Courts. 140-162, extended the system beyond Italy and 'bestowed honours and stipends on rhetoricians and philosophers in every province'. So that if 52 a year was the pay of a working man, the schoolmaster received 624 or 1248 a year. In the later Roman Empire endowed grammar and rhetoric schools were ubiquitous.
If anyone was pressed with the problem how learned persons from John of Salisbury in the twelfth to Cardinal Wolsey in the sixteenth century obtained the schooling which fitted them for their university careers, the solution was invariably sought in some monastery near their birthplace, which was, without the smallest proof, credited with keeping a school. In the rhetoric school, the boys at once began to practise public speaking. stating a case in the best way and language possible; then proceeding to speeches in supporting or attacking the statement ανασκευη or κατασκευη. whether the stories of the wolf of Romulus and the Egeria of Numa are true. is a successful lawyer or a successful soldier the greater man? It is clear from Quintilian that in his time the schools of rhetoric had got very far from life. In Trier, or Trèves, then the capital of the Western Empire, the rhetoric master was to draw 30 annonæ, the Latin grammar schoolmaster 20, and the Greek grammar schoolmaster, 'if a fit one can be gotten', 12 annonæ; a striking piece of evidence of the tendency to the disappearance of Greek from the schools of Northern and Western Europe, as the like words used by Colet in the statutes of his reformed St. The lives and writings of the [page 21] chief and earliest Latin 'doctor,' whom the Middle Ages worshipped, St.
An usher is contemplated, but other assistant masters seem unknown.
Classes are mentioned, but as to how many classes there were and how many in a class, no indication is given.
in that of Hannibal relating the passage of the Alps, and persuasive arguments (suasorias), as e.g. 'So that those old enough for more advanced studies remain at school and learn rhetoric of grammarians, with the absurd result that a boy is not thought fit to go to a master of speech before he has learnt how to speak.' Quintilian fixes no age at which boys should leave the grammar school for the school of rhetoric; except 'when they are fit'.
The rhetoricians would not teach anything but forensic or parliamentary speaking (deliberativas judicialesve materias), leaving to the grammarians speaking in fictitious characters (prosopopoias), as e.g.
In another general practice, which Quintilian wished to change, he was equally unsuccessful.
(page numbers in brackets) Notes on the text The complete book is shown in this single web page. The Ancient Schools in the City of London and Christ's Hospital, in Sir Walter Besant's London, The City. Besides the foundation of grammar, in its wide sense, Quintilian would have every budding orator learn mathematics, including geometry, from the mathematician, music from the musician, and the art of gesticulation from the actor. 321 relieved grammar schoolmasters and other professors (professores) from military and municipal service, while leaving them open to accept municipal honours, 'so that they may more readily enter numerous pupils in liberal studies'. This, it has been conjectured, was with a view to preventing the appointment of Christians.
You can scroll through it or use the following links to go to the various chapters. For these last items he is only repeating Greek formulæ and does not represent actual Roman practice. 305-306, with vicarious liberality, ordered the municipality of Augustodunum (Autun) to pay Eumenius, the master of the rhetoric school, from the public funds a salary of 600,000 sesterces (4800 a year). According to Augustine and others, he also by edict prohibited Christians from teaching in the schools; but as there is no record of any such edict forthcoming, this accusation must be received with the caution due to all the statements made by early Christian apologists about their opponents. 376, went even further in extending the interference of the central authority, charging the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul that 'in all towns which are called metropolis', equivalent in modern parlance to county boroughs, 'notable professors should be elected', and paid according to a scale of salaries laid down, viz.
Methuen's popular series of Antiquary's Books was readily accepted. 'I have never', he says, 'thoroughly understood why I hated Greek literature in which I was dipped as a little boy.
The plan of these books, however, excludes references to authorities: an exclusion peculiarly unfortunate for historical statements, many of which are so contradictory to received opinions that they will appear at first sight incredible to a great many people, and which rest largely on manuscripts still for the most part unprinted and unpublished. For I liked Latin, not indeed that which the preparatory masters taught me (quas primi magistri), but that which those who are called grammarians (grammatici) teach.